October 16, 2023

The 8 Limbs of Yoga Explained: A Guide to Holistic Practice

Begin your journey toward spiritual evolution and inner change as we explore the 8 Limbs of Yoga. This ancient yet very topical framework offers a comprehensive approach to achieving self-awareness, personal development, and, ultimately, self-realization.

Moving beyond mere physical postures, the 8 limbs invite practitioners on a journey inward. They foster not only physical flexibility but also a profound connection with one’s essence and the cosmos, leading to ultimate freedom.

The 8 Limbs of Yoga Explained: A Guide to Holistic Practice

Each limb is interwoven with the others. Together, they create a path for a deep evolution of consciousness and a life in harmony. By synchronizing the mind, body, and spirit, the 8 limbs of yoga pave the way for mindfulness, ethical living, and inner tranquility.

Stemming from Hindu philosopher Patanjali, the 8 limbs of yoga open gateways to a more mindful, less suffering life. We welcome you to explore these transformative elements of yoga that extend well beyond the mat, into your daily actions and behaviors.

To grasp the full spectrum of the 8 limbs of yoga and their application, we start this exploration by tracing their origins and significance. In this journey, we meet Patanjali and his seminal work, the Yoga Sutras.

If you prefer watching a video introduction, don’t miss The Eight Limbs of Yoga on Online Studio. This class equips you with the basic philosophical knowledge of Patanjali’s eightfold path. It also includes practical sessions (meditation and mantras) to integrate these teachings into our daily lives.

The 8 Limbs of Yoga on Online Studio

Patanjali’s Yoga Sutras: An Essential Introduction

Picture a meditation guide over two millennia old that offers you the key to yoga’s deep-seated knowledge. It’s the Yoga Sutras. Crafted by the sage Patanjali – the Great Seer of Truth – they act as an enduring beacon through yoga’s expansive territory.

Dubbed Raja Yoga, or Royal Yoga, this method touches upon every facet of human life. Despite the mystery shrouding its creator, Patanjali’s contributions have lit the way for myriad yoga followers over the ages.

Comprising 196 sutras, these succinct yet potent lines of wisdom are densely packed with meaning. To those unfamiliar, they might seem like fragments, yet every term is laden with significance.

Patanjali's yoga sutras contained 196 succinct yet potent lines of wisdom

In a time when oral transmission was the norm, these sutras stood out for their ability to encapsulate and safeguard knowledge across diverse fields, including grammar and medicine, among others.

Accompanied by commentaries known as Shastras, these texts provide detailed interpretations and deeper understanding, assisting in deciphering the sutras’ compacted messages.

As interpretations have proliferated over the centuries, a rich body of commentary has developed, offering varied perspectives on Patanjali’s foundational work.

The Essence of Ashtanga Yoga: Beyond the Physical

Derived from the ancient Yoga Sutras, Ashtanga Yoga, or “the 8 Limbs of Yoga,” sets forth a structured pathway aimed at achieving ultimate freedom. This holistic system outlines a meticulous practice that, when pursued with dedication, might lead to the reward of liberation.

It is crucial to differentiate between Patanjali’s classical Ashtanga Yoga and the modern dynamic asana sequences attributed to Pattabhi Jois. The latter offers a rather physical approach to yoga, which has its benefits though it deviates from the original meaning of traditional Ashtanga.

Ashtanga yoga intended as the modern dynamic asana sequences has its benefits

Traditional Ashtanga represents perhaps the most ancient systematic approach to meditation, guiding practitioners toward Samadhi, or a state of complete absorption. This discipline, accessible to all levels of practitioners, promises to enrich one’s yoga journey with depth and transformative benefits.

As we delve further, the profound impact and versatility of Ashtanga Yoga in nurturing spiritual growth and physical well-being will become evident, underscoring its timeless relevance and appeal.

To better understand the difference between the two approaches we highly recommend the series Classical Ashtanga Yoga on Online Studio. Watch it now with a Free Trial to discover this profound method of mastering the mind and reconnecting with our essence.

Decoding the 8 Limbs of Yoga: The Eightfold Path to Liberation

As outlined, the 8 Limbs of Yoga provide a comprehensive framework for the practice of yoga. They serve not only as a guide for a fulfilling and intentional life but also towards spiritual awakening.

A closer examination reveals a nuanced division. The initial four limbs are associated with tangible, external practices. On the other hand, the subsequent four focus on the mental and internal aspects.

However, this division is merely an introductory perspective, as Patanjali ascribes profound spiritual milestones to each limb’s mastery.

The progression through these limbs isn’t sequential like ascending a staircase. Instead, Patanjali rather depicts it as a holistic integration, where each limb interweaves with the others. They also mutually reinforce as the practitioner progresses in their yoga journey.

The 8 Limbs of Yoga represent the Eightfold Path to Liberation

Patanjali’s analogy of limbs, suggesting a natural and harmonious development from infancy to maturity, aptly illustrates this interconnected growth.

Briefly, the 8 limbs of yoga and their fundamental principles are as follows:

  1. Yamas: Moral restraints.
  2. Niyamas: Personal observances.
  3. Asana: Physical poses.
  4. Pranayama: Regulation of vital energy through breath.
  5. Pratyahara: Retraction of the senses.
  6. Dharana: Concentration.
  7. Dhyana: Meditation.
  8. Samadhi: Ultimate state of union and bliss.

In the context of Teacher Training programs, such as those offered by One Yoga, these concepts are explored comprehensively while you’re supported by seasoned instructors and fellow practitioners. The study of yoga philosophy provides an immersive educational experience into yoga’s ethical framework.

Can’t travel at the moment? Approach the 4 most ‘hands-on’ limbs by practicing from the comfort of your home. The series Four Limbs – One Practice brings together techniques from Dharana, Pranayama, Dhyana, and Asana to offer you the ultimate holistic yoga experience. Try it free!

Yamas & Niyamas: The Ethical Core of the 8 Limbs of Yoga

Yamas and Niyamas serve as foundational elements within the eightfold path of yoga. They act as ethical and self-disciplinary measures that foster a conducive environment for engaging with the remaining limbs.

These principles underscore the symbiotic relationship between an individual’s ethical conduct and their yoga practice. More in detail, adherence to Yama and Niyama naturally enhances one’s ability to delve deeper into yoga’s spiritual layers.

Yama and Niyama are not external mandates to be mechanically followed. Rather, they represent an organic reflection of a committed yoga practice. They guide practitioners in harmonizing their actions, thoughts, and intentions.

Yamas and Niyamas act as ethical and self-disciplinary measures within the 8 limbs of yoga

They steer clear of being perceived as inflexible commandments derived from philosophical or divine edicts. Instead of dictating morality through a binary lens of right and wrong, Yama and Niyama encourage a journey of introspection. So, they allow practitioners to gracefully navigate life’s challenges.

These two principles foster an educational approach, enlightening and challenging individuals to grow and evolve by presenting opportunities for self-examination rather than imposing punitive measures.

Incorporating Yama and Niyama into one’s life mitigates chaos, enabling a more focused and dedicated engagement with yoga’s other aspects. They should be viewed not as lofty ideals for spiritual ascension but as practical, day-to-day lessons aimed at fostering self-awareness and preventing recurrent missteps.

Briefly examining Yama and Niyama reveals their essence.


Yamas underscore universal ethical tenets. They include:

  • Ahimsa: Non-violence, harmlessness in thought, word, and deed.
  • Satya: Truthfulness, honesty.
  • Asteya: Non-stealing, respect for others’ possessions.
  • Brahmacharya: Continence, mastery over physical urges.
  • Aparigraha: Non-possessiveness, detachment from material greed.

Watch The Five Yamas a five-part series on Online Studio where we explore each of the Yamas through movement, breathwork, and introspection. By allowing the light of awareness to shine on us, we can transform negative patterns and cultivate a sense of inner peace – on and off the yoga mat.


Niyamas focus on personal disciplines. They comprise:

  • Saucha: Purity, cleanliness.
  • Santosha: Contentment, appreciation for simplicity.
  • Tapas: Austerity, discipline and perseverance.
  • Svadhyaya: Self-study, introspection, and the exploration of sacred texts.
  • Ishvara Pranidhana: Surrender to the divine, humility, and devotion.

You can find out more about the 5 Niyamas in the video The 5 Niyamas of Ashtanga Yoga on Online Studio. This class is part of the Yoga Philosophy series where we cover the basic knowledge to progress on your yogic path. The video includes a peak into the Yoga Sutras’ chapters.

Adopting these principles lays a robust groundwork for spiritual deepening and introspective engagement. As a consequence, such commitment paves the way for a more inward-focused journey through yoga’s successive stages.

The diligent application of Yama and Niyama demands dedication to continual self-reflection and a balanced approach to discipline. It’s important to ensure that self-improvement efforts are conducted with kindness towards oneself.

Asana: A Pathway to Meditative Stillness

For many who journey along the yoga path, ‘Asana’ is a familiar term. However, it often became synonymous with yoga itself, emphasizing only the physical aspect of the practice.

Contrary to popular belief, the traditional purpose of asana, the third limb of yoga, is to condition the practitioner’s body to endure extended periods of meditation, rather than serving as an end in itself.

This perspective reveals a significant departure from contemporary yoga practices, which largely prioritize physical wellness, fitness, and therapeutic benefits.

Asana - A Pathway to Meditative Stillness

According to ancient yogic manuscripts, the essence of asana lies in achieving tranquility within each pose, fostering a concentrated mind, and holding it to tap into its profound advantages.

Accessible to all, regardless of skill level, asanas invite a broad range of practitioners to explore their depths. However, truly embodying the third limb’s original intent demands a reflective approach and a readiness to delve beyond the superficial gains of physical practice.

Modern fast-paced yoga variants risk reducing yoga to mere physical exercise. To align more closely with asana’s authentic tradition, practitioners can explore Hatha yoga, characterized by prolonged pose retention, or slow-flow disciplines like Yin Yoga, which promote inward reflection through each posture.

One Yoga offers a wide range of possibilities to help you cultivate your asana practice in an idyllic tropical setting. You can join drop-in classes and Yoga Sadhana retreats or get trained as a Yoga teacher with our Yoga Alliance-certified courses that also include a specific traditional Hatha TTC.

One Yoga Online Studio catalog features over 900 videos and 80 courses

You can also join the Online Studio and follow one of the many asana courses. Just head over to our Catalog and use the “Filters” function to select your preferred Yoga style, experience level, class duration, and so on. With over 900 videos and 80 courses, you’ll find something that fits you!

Pranayama: Cultivating Energy Through Controlled Breathing

Pranayama, the fourth limb of yoga, plays a pivotal role in refining our mental state through the deliberate manipulation of breath to affect the pranic (energetic) body. This process effectively calms and stabilizes the mind, setting the stage for deeper meditative practices.

Pranayama serves as a crucial bridge, enabling a seamless transition to heightened levels of focus and spiritual rapture. It encompasses a variety of breathing exercises suited for practitioners at any stage, from beginners to advanced.

Some Pranayama techniques are straightforward, allowing for easy incorporation into daily routines for immediate relief in stressful situations. However, others demand a more committed practice to fully grasp and benefit from their transformative potential. The benefits of consistent Pranayama practice are extensive and deeply impactful over time.

The Awakening Breath Pranayama on Online Studio

Recognizing the significance of this limb, especially with its growing appeal, we encourage you to explore Pranayama further by reading our guide on Yogic Breathing and Pranayama Techniques. This article is designed to offer practical methods that can be effortlessly integrated into your daily life.

Want to start your mornings with a rush of clarity? Watch The Awakening Breath: Pranayama, a series that will outshine your cup of coffee! Melt mental fog and fuel your day with potent energy as you practice simple exercises to cleanse your mind, revitalize your body, and amplify your energy.

Pratyahara: The Art of Sensory Withdrawal

Within Patanjali’s Ashtanga Yoga, the fifth limb, Pratyahara, signifies a pivotal shift towards inward focus. A deeper level of connection with our higher self can be achieved by disengaging the mind from the five senses: sound, touch, sight, taste, and smell.

This stage is about the inward pull of consciousness, a shift from external distractions to introspective awareness. Unlike the usual outward dispersion of attention towards sensory stimuli, Pratyahara encourages an inward journey, marking the commencement of deep mental focus.

This limb acts as a crucial intermediary, facilitating the transition from the foundational practices of yoga towards the advanced stages of meditation and heightened awareness.

Pratyahara is The Art of Sensory Withdrawal

Pratyahara is essentially about achieving a state where the external world ceases to disturb our inner equilibrium, setting the stage for profound states of concentration.

Engaging in Pratyahara, especially in today’s information-saturated environment, presents challenges but remains attainable through disciplined practice.

Practical Pratyahara Methods

If you want to deepen your practice and embrace Pratyahara’s inward journey, consider starting with these practical techniques:

  1. Focus on the breath: Central to Pratyahara practice is the gentle observation of one’s breath. By tuning into the breath’s natural flow, without attempting to alter its pace or depth, we cultivate an inner connection, gradually stepping away from the clamor of the external world.
  2. Chidakasha concentration: Focusing on the Ajna chakra, located at the forehead’s midpoint, is another effective method. This practice, often linked to the concept of the third eye, facilitates access to profound states of consciousness and heightened awareness.
  3. Limiting sensory inputs: Simplifying one’s sensory environment can significantly aid in drawing the mind inward. By reducing external stimuli and concentrating on one sense at a time, such as listening, the mind, once saturated with a single sensory experience, begins to retreat into a state of introspective focus.

For those beginning their journey towards focused meditation, a structured and progressive course can provide a solid foundation. Make meditation a life-changing habit with our 21-Day Meditation Challenge. In this series, you’ll learn different ways into your authentic truth and blossom inner peace.

Dharana: From Multitasking to One-Pointed Focus

In today’s multitasking-driven world, the art of maintaining a singular focus has waned. Nonetheless, this is a skill that Patanjali deemed essential for fruitful yoga practice.

Mastery over one’s attention, channeling it towards a single point while sidelining all else, forms the crux of Dharana, or concentration. This limb of yoga serves as our initial foray into mastering focus. It requires both persistent effort and a gentle resolve honed through repeated practice.

By continuously redirecting our focus to a chosen object, we cultivate both determination and compassionate patience, essential for a sharpened mind. The practice of Dharana teaches us the power of release. This means letting go of the mind’s critiques to embrace the potential for renewal at every moment.

Dharana - From Multitasking to One-Pointed Focus

This discipline subtly permeates our being, enhancing our ability to respond to life’s challenges with increased autonomy and equanimity. Dharana unfolds not merely as a technique but as a transformative journey towards deeper awareness.

This limb lays the groundwork for advanced states of consciousness. Along with the subsequent stages, it requires a steadfast, patient practice, building upon the foundational principles outlined in the preceding limbs of yoga.

Dhyana: Meditative States and Beyond

In contemporary times, the practice of meditation encompasses a range of interpretations. However, some of them veer away from its traditional essence.

Often conflated with stress-relief or therapeutic practices, meditation, within Patanjali’s Ashtanga Yoga, signifies a profound evolution of the concentration phase. With adequate mastery in Dharana, moments of unbroken focus lengthen, ushering one seamlessly into Dhyana, or meditation.

In this state, the focus on the meditation object remains uninterrupted, flowing with ease for extended durations. Contrary to common belief, this stage is not actively practiced but rather reached as a natural progression of deep concentration.

Dhyana is a meditative state reached after an intense concentration phase

Experiencing Dhyana brings about profound joy and may lead to a state of emptiness, characterized by the absence of active thought or imagery. Yet, Dhyana alone does not culminate in Yoga’s ultimate aim – self-realization.

Despite the tranquility and the dissolution of the discursive mind, a sense of personal identity persists. The notion of ‘self’ engaged in meditation remains. This stage, though free from the usual mental chatter, still binds one to a sense of individual existence.

Thus, it indicates the necessity of advancing beyond to achieve complete liberation.

Samadhi: The Journey to Pure Consciousness

Samadhi represents the pinnacle of yogic practice. It’s a state where the meditator and the object of meditation merge into one, transcending the duality of subject and object to embody pure consciousness.

This profound level of awareness is beyond ordinary identification or experiential phenomena, existing outside the constraints of time and space. It’s often likened to returning to one’s original state or ‘home’, a universal consciousness that is omnipresent yet veiled by the mind’s constructs.

Samadhi is a Journey to Pure Consciousness

Samadhi transcends typical experiences, this is why it’s often described as a ‘non-event’. It eludes conventional understanding and happens beyond the physical dimensions of existence.

It signifies an experiential return to an expansive, impersonal awareness that all beings share, previously obscured by the mind’s limitations.

The Path to Ultimate Freedom

Patanjali delineates various stages of Samadhi, starting with Samprajñātā Samadhi. This progresses through levels of awareness from physical to subtle, then to bliss and a sense of individuality.

A more advanced state, Samāpatti, reflects a mind that mirrors any object of focus, embodying the knower, the means of knowledge, and the known. The apex, Nirbija Samadhi, represents a seedless absorption, eradicating all mental conditioning and ushering in Kaivalya – absolute freedom.

Within Patanjali’s eightfold path, Samadhi is a progression rather than an end, a series of deepening absorptions that may culminate in Kaivalya. This distinction emphasizes that while Samadhi is crucial, the ultimate liberation is beyond even this profound state.

Approaching Samadhi without preconceived notions or expectations is vital. In fact, intellectualizing the experience can impede genuine understanding.

Patanjali’s descriptions serve as milestones, guiding the practitioner’s journey towards true insight and liberation. They help steer clear of misidentification and premature conclusions of attainment.

Samadhi is a state of non-duality

Nisargadatta Maharaj, an advocate of nondualism, elucidates Samadhi as the capacity to transcend individual consciousness and witness the essence of all existence, embodying both the totality of existence and the void simultaneously.

This state of non-duality reveals the infinite, singular nature of consciousness, where expressions of love manifest in myriad forms. Samadhi is thus a journey into the essence of being, transcending the illusions of self to realize a state of oneness with all that is, paving the way to ultimate freedom.

Final Thoughts

As we conclude this exploration of the 8 Limbs of Yoga, we acknowledge the transformative power of this ancient yet ever-relevant framework. With a holistic approach to self-growth and spiritual development, the eightfold path encourages us to integrate these practices into our daily lives for a more mindful existence.

Each limb, closely connected to the others, serves as a stepping stone toward achieving a deeper understanding of ourselves and our place in the cosmos.

Through Asana, we prepare our bodies for the rigors of meditation. With Pranayama, we learn to control our life force. Practicing Pratyahara, Dharana, and Dhyana, we gradually withdraw inward, sharpening our focus and deepening our meditation.

Finally, when we reach Samadhi, all duality dissolves and we become one with the universe.

The 8 limbs of yoga are a holistic approach to self-growth and spiritual development

This journey is about fostering a life of harmony, ethical integrity, and compassion towards ourselves and others. As we embody the principles of the 8 Limbs of Yoga, we not only navigate our path with greater awareness but also contribute to the collective consciousness in a meaningful way.

Let this be an invitation to continue deepening your practice, embodying yoga’s timeless virtues in the journey toward inner tranquility and universal unity.